Each motion segment consists of two adjacent vertebrae, which are movably coupled to the disc and the intervertebral joints (except for the C 0-2 segments only). The most common sources of pain are overloaded joints, degenerated discs, or nerve root depression to the left or right when passing through the intervertebral apertures.
When viewed from the side, each segment has 2 main mechanical columns. Front, formed by disc and rear, formed by intervertebral (facet) joints. Discs spring, the hinges can move slightly. In front of the front, the front column, ie the disc, is loaded more heavily, the back column is heavier, ie the hinges, while the discs are lightened.
The jaws of the disc are sloping backwards while sitting down (even sitting in a deep chair, sitting with legs over your leg …!). When swinging, the back edges of the vertebrae approach, so the heel can only forward.
Shifting movements in their natural range does not lead to damage. Even so, minor maintenance of light tissue wear is a matter of regeneration that is happening virtually all day and we do not even know about them.
If the movements do not change, but for example, the spine segment remains for a longer period of time (long suture with an incorrectly formed lumbar spine in the bend), there is more damage that is no longer fully regenerated. Degeneration begins. Minimal, non-visible, but permanent, permanent change as a result of static overload. This has its significant consequences, especially after a longer period when its effect adds to a similar slight degeneration of the surrounding segments, but also to other segments of the segment one.
Another type of harmful recurrent load is a repetitive dynamic load overcoming the natural limits of the tissue (an hourly throw with a shovel in a non-trained clerk).
The intervertebral aperture may be as wide as the intervertebral disc is high. With its reduction (congestion degeneration, physiological process of aging, post-operative condition), the intervertebral opening narrows, leaving two nerve roots in each movement segment. One on the left, the other on the right. The logical reason is that as long as possible keep as high as possible, juicy tablets full of water, which can effectively prevent nerve root clogging.
Nothing is simple – osteophytes
The root nerve need not be irritated by a narrowed intervertebral opening when the disc is reduced. Overloaded and not fully regenerated vertebrae (periosteum) of the vertebrae may irritate. Followed by mild swelling, inflammation, light scar, with repeated inadequate chronic loading. This phase can cause considerable pain (room for medication against swelling and inflammation). The body prevents pain – it harasses it. It wants to prevent movement which makes the pain even worse. The “brain” will turn the surrounding muscles to strengthen the segment. However, local pressure increases and pain may worsen (room for muscle relaxants and painkillers, which subsequently lead to lower activation of protective muscular tension).
Bone (occiput) is also protected. She’s stupid, she does not know much. What is good is growing, so it grows. It grows in the direction of overload and inflammation. It grows slowly but for a long time. This results in increases, flushes, and osteophytes. These can then be seen on X-ray or CT (CT).
Bone blooms (osteophytes) are sharp, irritating the surrounding soft tissues, cutting them – and it hurts! They can also grow backwards, directly into the intervertebral space and push there on the nerve root. Two osteophytes growing from adjacent vertebrae can also merge, bridge the disk, and the whole segment will be immobilized over time. The stationary segment then requires greater movement demands on adjacent segments, which are easily overloaded, less regenerated, degenerate, and cycle repeated.
Anomalous motion segment
There are minor developmental deviations (defects) of the locomotive apparatus. One intervertebral joint develops less well, it is smaller than normal. All vertebrae forming the developmental basis of the bones do not grow – one remains partially or completely separated. Similar things can be found. Someone does not even know about them and it is completely without difficulty. But such a small detail in the overall picture is a possible place for the beginning of premature degeneration. A process that is very slow, like a domino in honey, spreads to nearby segments that will not last forever …
The path to diversity
The best way to avoid damage with subsequent degeneration is a varied, regular, reasonable movement. Climb, climb, swim. Do everything you do not do at work!