Global Environmental Agreements

A Convention may refer to an actual meeting or conference between the parties, during which they reach an agreement on the final terms of a treaty. However, it is also widely used to describe large-scale agreements between governments. Lists of international environmental treaties, conventions and other conventions with links to text, membership, performance data, secretariat and summary statistics. More than 1,300 multilateral, 2,200 bilateral and 250 “others.” Grouping by date, subject and “line” of legally related agreements (e.g. B agreements on the Montreal Protocol). The “others” include environmental agreements between governments and international organizations or non-state actors, not two or more governments. NEW: Membership links in contract lists now contain annual state reports and the same information in the Stata format for data analysis. The adoption of international environmental agreements by country has accelerated over time. The HEIDI dataset includes 2,280 environmental contracts between the 18th century and the present (2017). All treaties have three criteria defined by definition: 1) they are binding under international law; 2) they were concluded by two or more states; 3) Their main objective is to protect the natural world or to develop the sustainable exploitation of natural resources.

These include well-known multilateral treaties on biodiversity and climate change, but most are bilateral or regional treaties dealing with issues such as fisheries protection, freshwater management, oil spill and nuclear waste. Most of the contracts were identified and collected by Ronald Mitchell (2003) [26]. An agreement between two nations is called a bilateral agreement on the environment. If the agreement is reached between three or more nations, it is called the Multilateral Agreement on the Environment (MEA). Such agreements, first concluded by the United Nations, deal with issues such as atmospheric policy, freshwater policy, waste and hazardous substances policy, the marine environment, the protection of nature, noise pollution and nuclear safety. [2] We find that the number of health provisions is strongly and positively correlated with the number of parties to an environmental contract.

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