For correct understanding of the back function, it is necessary to know their basic part and that is the backbone. It consists of vertebrae, intervertebral discs and ligaments that hold them together. The spine has several main functions: upright posture, allowing movement and forming a bone envelope for the nervous system.
Description of the spine
The spine forms the axial part of our body. It is made up of vertebrae, which are bone shapes that form a static component (standing upright) and a dynamic component (we can move) and protect our nervous system. The individual vertebrae clamp the muscles to allow a relatively wide range of movement. The spine of an adult has its own curvature, it is swayed – in the cervical spine it is curved forward, in the back of the chest, back in the back and in the area of the back again. Thanks to the curvature of the spine, the system is flexible. The degree of curvature is different for each person, someone has a minimal curvature (we can hear the term smoothed curve) someone, on the contrary, is more shy. They are connected with cartilage discs – intervertebral discs and intervertebral joints. The whole system is reinforced by a large number of ligaments. The shape of the spine is also largely involved in the muscular apparatus, which affects the overall posture.
It sounds like a static (immobile) function, but it is not. Holding is ensured both by a firm bony structure (vertebrae), but also by a flexible connective tissue system that holds it together. Vases help keep your spine economically in different positions. There are a number of short ligaments that connect the arches and protrusions of adjacent vertebrae, as well as a system of long ligaments that essentially longitudinally attracts the whole spine. The quality of the muscular apparatus also has a significant influence on the upright posture of the spine.
Mobility of the spine
The movements that the spine can perform are bow and bend, bow, rotation – rotation, and also spring, which changes the curvature of the spine. The range of motion is determined by the shape of the individual vertebrae and their joint surfaces. The articular surfaces are usually constructed so that the movement between the single vertebrae is very small and the larger movement ranges are possible with the common movement of all the vertebrae. The most mobile is the area of the cervical spine, on the contrary the smallest movement is in the chest area, where the range of movement is restricted by the chest. The greatest problems occur in the areas of transition of more and less moving places – ie the transition between the moving neck and less moving chest area, further between the less movable thoracic and the more movable lumbar region or between the movable lumbar and the immobile cross section. Try to see where the pain is when your back hurts. Is not it just the place of transition?
The nervous system consists of the brain, the continuation of which is the spinal cord and the rising neural roots. It is the spinal cord and nerve roots that pass through the spinal canal to ensure its protection. The spinal cord ends in the adult at about the level of the second lumbar vertebra, from which the nerve root is called, which is called the horse’s tail (when the so-called lumbar puncture is taken – the cerebrospinal fluid is taken from the place where the spinal cord can no longer be damaged Lumbar vertebra). From the spinal cord, 31 pairs of spinal nerves appear to guide the information from and into the body. Nerve output can sometimes be suppressed (eg when the intervertebral disc is defeated) and cause very unpleasant pain.
Motion Control – Holding the spine
Holding the spine in the correct position and the individual movements are provided by the muscular apparatus. He is, however, only the executor of certain instructions (motor programs) that come from the control centers – the brain and the spinal cord. These commands directly affect the quality of posture and individual movements. Poor posture or inappropriate movements are a frequent source of back pain, which implies that quality of control plays a very important role in the proper functioning of our spine. The purpose of treating back pain is not only to relieve acute or chronic pain, cure inflammation, stabilize and heal fracture, but especially to restore and maintain the quality of subconscious control programs. In practice, this means one thing – TRUE EXERCISE!
The basic prerequisite for proper spinal function is the perfect co-operation of individual components. Bad work of one component directly affects other parts that provide a certain function. Due to the number of structures providing these functions, the source of the difficulties can also be varied. The basis of both treatment and prevention is understanding the structure and function of our body that will identify the cause of the problem.