Understanding why the back is hurting, it is good to know what hurt can, which is what the back really is. These are primarily muscles, bones, joints and nervous structures. All these parts together form one functional whole – our back.
What is the spine?
The backbone is the bone bone of our body, consisting of 34 vertebrae – including 7 cervical vertebrae, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar, 5 vertebral, and 4-5 vertebrae vertebrae. They are connected with cartilage discs – intervertebral discs and intervertebral joints. The entire system is strengthened by a large number of ligaments and muscles – they look like ropes that ensure the stability and flexibility of the body.
What does he look like?
Each turn is composed of three parts: body, arc, and spurs.
Depending on the individual segments of the spine (cervical, thoracic, lumbar), these parts typically differ – for example, the lumbar vertebra is larger than the cervical vertebrae (as well as the intervertebral disc) because it carries more weight and is adapted to the cervical The vertebra has the articulated surfaces adapted to larger motion ranges.
The arc of the vertebra is pointing backward from the body. The arcs of arcs together form the tunnel in which the spinal cord is stored.
Vertebrae lesions provide mobility – joint joints combine vertebrae, pairs of transverse and unpaired spines (this is the one we can feel on the back, in a lot of thin people we can see them as a vertical cords on the back) are designed especially for the attachment of muscles and Ligaments.
Each vertebra has four articular surfaces connecting to adjacent vertebrae (two with upper vertebrae and two with lower vertebrae). The thoracic vertebra has additionally joints for joining the ribs. Between the vertebral bodies a cartilaginous disc is inserted – the intervertebral disc (see Intervertebral disc anatomy).
Between the bodies and the arcs of the neighboring vertebrae, the intervertebral space emerges, which originates with the spinal cord of the spinal cord. It is divided into individual nerves carrying information to the internal organs, muscles, skin, etc., and bringing information back to the central nervous system – into the spinal cord and through it through the brain. If there is an imbalance between the size of the opening and the nerve root, the nerve may be compressed, resulting in very severe pain. The basic assumption of sufficient size of this space is a sufficiently high, healthy and juicy intervertebral disc.
There are seven vertebrae labeled C1 – C7 in the neck area. Different shapes are the first vertebra, called the atlas, and the second vertebra – the ax. The atlas does not have a vertebral body and represents a connection between the skull and the spine. Specific shape also allows specific movement. Axis is a vertebrae, from which the tooth that protrudes upwards, which connects with the atlas (it is actually the missing body of the atlas). Verteil C7 is a relatively large, well-tangled vertebra at the end of the neck. The transition between C7 and Th1 (the first thoracic vertebra) is quite a lot of stress between the moving cervical spine and the less moving thoracic spine.
The thoracic spine consists of 12 vertebrae (Th1 – Th12). Ribs that are attached to the front with a cartilage with a sternum are attached to it. The thoracic spine, the ribs and the thoracic bone form a chest, which significantly reduces the possibility of movement in the thoracic spine, but on the other hand mechanically protects the heart, lungs and large thoracic vessels.
The lumbar vertebrae are 5 (L1 – L5) and have massive bodies adapted to bear the weight of higher structures. The cranial spine is the second most moving and the most common movement is the spine (flexion of the spine).
Cross bones and coccyx
The cross bones (S1 – S5) are made of five cross vertebrates and allow connection to the pelvis. The transition between the lumbar and the crossed areas is again a very stressed stretch where we can sometimes feel pain. Intensified in this area is also the intervertebral disc (we often hear the L5 / S1 outburst).
The skeleton (or skeletal bone) forms a joint of the 4 – 5 cartilaginous vertebrae. It is a stingy formation, yet it is an important place to attach the pelvic floor muscles. With the bones of the cross, the coccyx is connected with the cartilage.
We have found that our spine is a complicated system of bones, ligaments and muscles that has several functions. Although this system is very sophisticated and functional, its failures often appear. If you want to learn more about this issue, read the following articles.
The basis of the spine’s motion abilities is the moving connection of two adjacent vertebrae – the motion segment. When describing the site of pain or damage, medicine usually describes, for example, segmental syndrome C5 / 6, L4 / 5 etc. Thus, it is possible to clearly define where the problem is.