(i) these payments are based on surfaces and fixed returns; or two. In accordance with the mid-term review agreement, state aid, either direct or indirect to promote agricultural and rural development, is an integral part of developing country development programmes, investment subsidies that are generally available to agriculture in developing countries, and agricultural input subsidies, which are generally available to low- and low-resource producers in developing countries. , are exempt from commitments to reduce national aid which, if not, would apply to such measures. , as well as national aid to producers in developing countries, which encourage diversification through the cultivation of illicit stunning plants. National aid meeting the criteria set out in this paragraph should not be taken into account in the calculation of the current AMS of the total number of Member States. The European Union`s consolidated commitments covered 1,764 tariff lines. The average consolidated food tariff, which was 26% at the beginning of the implementation period, was only 17% at the end of the period. In addition, the European Union imposed zero or minimal tariffs on 775 lines on a total of 1,764 lines. Only 8% of tariffs have a duty of more than 50%. These peaks apply to dairy products, beef, cereals and grain products, as well as sugar and sweeteners. With regard to tariff quotas, the European Union has set a total of 87 quotas, 37 of which are covered by the `minimum access` and 44 by `current access`.
In 2014, about 71% of agricultural and food imports, worth EUR 72 billion, were imported into the EU duty-free. the obligation to meet specific binding commitments in each of the following areas: market access; Domestic assistance Export competition and reach agreement on health and plant health issues; Export subsidies are the third pillar. The 1995 agricultural agreement required industrialized countries to reduce export subsidies by at least 36% (in value terms) or by 21% (by volume) over a six-year value. For developing countries, the agreement called for reductions of 24% (in value) and 14% (in volume) over ten years. The member transparency toolkit contains information on notification formats and a reporting manual, as well as links to members` lists with commitments and other resources to support member transparency in the agricultural sector. The 1947 GATT initially applied to agriculture, but was incomplete, and the signatory states (or “contracting parties”) excluded this sector from the scope of the principles set out in the general agreement. During the period 1947-1994, members were allowed to use export subsidies for primary agricultural products and to impose import restrictions under certain conditions, so that major agricultural raw materials faced trade barriers in unusual proportions in other sectors. The road to a fair, market-oriented agricultural trade system has therefore been difficult and time-consuming; and the negotiations were finally concluded during the Uruguay Round. Agriculture has a special status in WTO agreements and trade agreements (signed in 1994 and entered into force on 1 January 1995), with the sector having a specific agreement, the agriculture agreement, whose provisions prevail. In addition, some provisions of the agreement on the application of plant protection measures (SPS) also concern agricultural production and trade. The same applies to the agreement on trade-related aspects of intellectual property rights (TRIPS) with respect to the protection of geographical denominations. In addition, the provisions of the agreement on agriculture are complemented by the Agreement on Technical Barriers to Trade (OTC) and by technical assistance mechanisms.
In the run-up to the 1986 GATT Ministerial Conference in Punta del Este, Uruguay, agricultural lobbies in industrialized countries have vehemently opposed the compromises